Discussion Board 3.1


So, we’ve encountered three different overviews of what ideology is, but let’s organize our own thinking about it. In this discussion board, think about and comment on the following questions:

1. Keeping in mind the material covered in this lesson, describe how you understand ideology in your own words.
Hint: One way to approach this is as follows
a) Describe what ideology is in a brief paragraph (in your own words).
b) Give an example illustrating what you wrote in (a).
c) Write another paragraph (or two), explaining to your reader with additional details, how you understand ideology.

2. How do you understand the difference between conservative and liberal ideology in US politics? What seem to be the big differences, the dividing line? Given an example to backup your arguments.
Hint: try to identify key words (concepts) that play a big role in making someone consider themselves to be liberal or conservative. Then, explain in your own words what those keywords (concepts) mean.

3. How do you understand Althusser’s definition of ideology? Paraphrase it in your own words. Given an example. Hint: you may have to watch the second video again, and find the few places where Althusser’s position is presented.

Hint: Remember, the discussion boards are crucial for us this semester, because they reproduce our in-class conversations. Try to be thorough and write more, rather than less. I will do the same, and make sure by the time we end our discussion, we have covered the key ideas on the module.


To organize things better, I have broken up our conversation into two parts. After finishing here, head over to Discussion Board 3 – part 2 .


Before posting, watch this video, which will show you how to post your answer to this discussion board:

NOTE: Once you’ve scheduled your post to be published on at midnight on Sunday, you can still go back and edit your post until then, if you want to rewrite and/or add to your post.

As a review, follow the following steps to submit your response:

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  3. Type your response
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What will happen next is your post will automatically be published by the OpenLab system on Thursday at midnight. The goal here is for all student posts to be published at the same deadline. After that point, you can begin reading each others’ posts, and you have to comment on at least one other student’s post.

Note: please make sure that you schedule your post to be published on Thursday, midnight, not before.

3.1 discussion- Idiology

  1. Ideology is a way to describe a political and social matter. Ideology is like a social routine that helps figure out. persons way of thinking. It’s away for people to express their interest and what they support. Is more of way to split the political wealth and social struggles. In some ways it seems to control its people in a political way.
  2. My best way to know the difference between conservative and liberal ideology In US politics is by remembering how conservative ideology is more of single problem such as in politics where people would want to have a balance in money and less tax, a one way rule. As of Liberal is more of wanting taxes to be raised, or have free healthcare is more demanding.
  3. Althusser’s definition to me is that ideology is a way fro people to speak up about their interest and beliefs, also a way for society to have a better way to show their difference in politics no matter each others differences.

Anjanie Krishnanan

1. To my understanding, I can best describe an ideology as a person’s outlook or attitude on a subject whether it is political, economical, or social. These beliefs arise from one’s circumstances. For example, religion is an ideology and within one’s religion is a variation of beliefs. Some believers strictly follow their faith, and some may lean towards being more liberal, and follow what they feel are more important. Your environment plays a huge role in where you stand on certain topics. The way you’ve grown up, the way you were taught, etc. are all contributing factors towards your ideologies.

2. Some differences that contribute to my understanding between conservatives and liberal ideologies is their stances on their economic and political views. For example, conservatives believe the the government should spend less and should tax less. They want to cut spending to balance and prioritize the country’s budget. People with a higher income should invest as well. On the other hand, liberals believe that the government should provide more support, services, and programs to the less fortunate, for example, free healthcare. In order to achieve this they believe taxes should be raised if necessary. In addition, people with a higher income should pay a larger percentage of taxes. Liberty is the primary political virtue for conservatives and equality is the primary political virtue for liberals. Liberals are different in their political views from conservative because they believe that the government should play a big and active role in society. In contrast, conservatives believe that a large government threatens individual liberty.

3. Althusser’s definition of ideology to my understanding, is the acceptance of beliefs without being aware you believe them because they are reinforced through expected and mandating behaviors. For example, we are taught to be productive and work hard, unless you have inherited a lot of wealth. We are taught to follow the rules, unless you can pay to change them. Althusser believed fear and just being accepted for who you are, are strong motivators that is meant to keep the status quo in order and to control people. However, it isn’t real, and continues to operate because everyone believes it does.

Sianna Velez – Discussion Board 3.1

1. I think ideology is ones beliefs, ideas, values, and opinions regarding social or political issues. I think people’s ideology affects how they live their lives and how they see themselves and others. I think people use their ideology to decide how they would prefer society to be like and to decide how they will conform to society. An example of an ideology is socialism. People who are socialists believe that everything in society should be collectively decided by citizens. 

 
2. The difference between conservative and liberal ideology is that liberal ideology is usually focused on human rights/equality while conservative ideology is usually about the economy and the military/guns or national defense. Conservatives are usually more traditional and want to keep the government how it was in the past and liberals want the government to change and be updated. An example of conservative ideology is that conservatives believe in lower taxes. An example of liberal ideology is that liberals believe that women should be allowed to have abortions. 

 
3. Althusser’s definition of ideology is that ideology is used to organize society. 

Orkida Marashi 3.1

Ideology

1-Keeping in mind the material covered in this lesson, describe how you understand ideology in YOUR OWN WORDS.

  • In my opinion, Ideology is a set of opinions or views based on your ideas which refers to a set of political beliefs. For instance, democrats believe that government knows what is best for the citizen and it is the government’s responsibility to care for all individuals.

2-How do you understand the difference between conservative and liberal ideology in US politics? What seems to be a big difference, the dividing line? Given an example to back up your arguments.

  • The difference between the liberal and conservative is that liberals think that people should be treated equally no matter what religion, sexual orientation, income might have and have all the right to be whatever they want. Conservative views are enclosed-minded compared to liberals. They think people should work hard to take care of themselves, and those who don’t work are lazy. Also, they believe in traditional family values, such as not kids outside the marriage and sexual orientation doesn’t exist and should not exist, etc.

3How do you understand Althusser’s definition of ideology? Paraphrase it in your own words. Given an example.

  • Althusser’s definition of ideology is explained that ideology with the term of Ideological State Apparatuses which consist of schools, family and political system. He also said that ideology is not false but real and we as humans shouldn’t see ideology as an illusion because it is the way we see reality basis on which we make decisions.

  1. Keeping in mind the material covered in this lesson, describe how you understand ideology in YOUR OWN WORDS.

My understanding of what ideology is that it is a representation of a person’s or people’s beliefs specially surrounding politics, economy, and policies. An ideology can be an opinion about how these systems should work and there are also different ideologies. There are three main ideologies, rightist, centrist, and leftist, according to the article. These categories however are very broad and have specific details that differentiate them from each other.


2. How do you understand the difference between conservative and liberal ideology in US politics? What seem to be the big differences, the dividing line? Given an example to back up your arguments.

Conservative ideologies according to the article consist of, “conservatives, corporate elites, and many other affluent persons who advocate free-market capitalism and defend big business as the mainstay of the good society. Free-market capitalism is essentially the unregulated laissez-faire variety in which private-profit investments have priority over almost all other social considerations.” o the other hand the liberals “see a need for improving public services and environmental protections; they support minimum-wage laws, unemployment insurance, and other wage supports, along with Social Security, nutritional aid for needy children, occupational safety, and the like.” The main difference in my opinion is that the liberals want government regulations while the conservatives want businesses to have all the power.


3. How do you understand Althusser’s definition of ideology? Paraphrase it in your own words. Given an example. Hint: you may have to watch the second video again and find the few places where Althusser’s position is presented.

I feel that Althusser’s definitely does not support the conservatives’ ideologies but I also feel that he does not fully accept the liberals. In. my opinion he favors the socialists.

Ideology

1. My understanding of ideology is that it is the collection of political views that someone holds, whether or not they actually benefit you. Sometimes this correlates with a political party (Republican, Democrat) but sometimes it correlates with a political identity (liberal, socialist, conservative). Sometimes peoples’ collection of beliefs do not fit neatly into any of these categories. An example of this could be someone who leans liberal on most but not all issues — they may be in favor of increasing spending on social programs, cutting the defense budget, and in favor of marriage equality, but strongly oppose abortion. 

This being said, ideology is the category of the collection of beliefs, rather than one individual’s specific beliefs. It is another way to identify and align with others within a divided community, and sometimes it is more about principles rather than specific beliefs.

2. In the US, conservative ideology seems to align with concepts like cutting government spending and size, supporting private business rather than public services, and preserving independent autonomy above the collective, except when it comes to the idea of national pride. Conservative ideology often goes back to the idea of every person for themselves, and that if you are a good person you will be successful. Most important for conservatives are liberty and economic success, which they see as only possible through reduction of government spending. Liberal ideology is almost the direct opposite; increasing funding to public and social services, supporting communities and individuals, and seeing people as part of groups and communities rather than individual Americans. 

I see this especially in my field of social work; we are taught to recognize that people are part of systems. There is no person who is beyond helping and individual failure doesn’t really exist, just lack of adequate and appropriate support at the intersection of vulnerabilities. Self-determination is possible and a great goal for many, but some conservatives I have talked to see things like welfare as negatively affecting the community rather than supporting vulnerable people to create autonomy. I, a liberal, see welfare as a vital (if currently flawed) service that the government should provide to lift up individuals and their communities.

3. Althusser sees ideology as a set of beliefs and framework for thinking about our role in society that we are taught to not question, not critically analyze, and which we must accept in order to be a member of society. This is true whether or not that framework actually benefits us. One example that comes to mind is the concept of the 9-5 job. Many of us would be happier and more productive with different working hours, but because corporations have an extant structure, we do not question it when employers expect us to work Monday-Friday from 9-5, because it can feel like there are no other options so how could we even imagine a world without the 40 hour work week.

DB 3.1

1. Keeping in mind the material covered in this lesson, describe how you understand ideology in YOUR OWN WORDS.

Hint: One way to approach this is as follows

a) Describe what ideology is in a brief paragraph (in your own words).

b) Give an example illustrating what you wrote in (a).

c) Write another paragraph (or two), explaining to your reader with additional details, how you understand ideology.

I think ideology is a belief that a group of people’s thoughts, ideas, and values that they express in their life, like racism and sexism, also Capitalism and communism. Ideology is also around us, for example, I like sweets and hate bitter, and you have the same opinion as me, so does some of the other people, then now we had formed “sweet-ism”. Religions are a kind of ideology that might be a better example. While a king of ideology exists, there are usually or more forms of ideologies that are against that idea, back to my example, there might have “bitter-ism”, “sour-ism” or “spicy-ism” happening and create conflict.

2. How do you understand the difference between conservative and liberal ideology in US politics? What seems to be a big difference, the dividing line? Given an example to back up your arguments.

Hint: try to identify keywords (concepts) that play a big role in making someone consider themselves to be liberal or conservative. Then, explain in your own words what those keywords (concepts) mean.

Liberal tend to increase government control of trade and commerce, but don’t support restrictions on freedom of speech, sexual issues, beliefs, and other personal freedoms, while Conservative tend to increase restrictions on personal behavior, but don’t support restrictions on trade, business, wealth and property appreciation. Their opinion on government control and personal freedom are mostly opposite, Liberal is more close to Democratic and Conservative for Republican.

3. How do you understand Althusser’s definition of ideology? Paraphrase it in your own words. Given an example. Hint: you may have to watch the second video again, and find the few places where Althusser’s position is presented.

Althusser’s definition of ideology is that it’s an important and useful tool that can be used in school, media campaigns, and politics. Which are the places and sources that we people usually get the information from, people can be “brain-washed” to have whatever the idea that the government wants us to have. For example, if the government united with the media and changed the teaching materials to tell people that we’re living inside a TV where outside they have Gods that are watching us, of course, at first people wouldn’t believe it, but as time passes through, they will start to take this as fact.

Discussion 3.1 -SaiLungCash Jeung

1. Ideology is divided into many types, including political, social, values, etc. In political ideology, it is divided into right, center, and left. They all have different political ideas, and in political ideology, most people understand these two factions, conservatives and liberals. Michael Parenti wrote “Conservative ideology preaches the virtues of private initiative and self-reliance: rich and poor pretty much get what they deserve; “The political ideologies of these two factions are different.
Different class ideologies are also different. The rich need to pay more taxes to the government to help the poor and the society, but the rich do not get any benefits from it, so they think the government should cut taxes. But for these Those who receive government funding do not object to the government charging high taxes on the rich, which means that different class ideologies are different.

2.The biggest difference between conservative and liberal ideologies in American politics is economic interests and class. Conservatives are rich people. They believe that the government should not interfere in the free market. They want to abolish most government regulations on business, as well as environmental and consumer protection, disability and retirement support, minimum wage laws, unemployment compensation, occupational safety and injury compensation laws. Most liberals are from the working class, and they think the government needs to provide them with more help. Many liberals believe that public services and environmental protection need to be improved; they support the minimum wage law, unemployment insurance and other wage support, as well as social security, nutritional assistance for poor children, and occupational safety. From the difference in ideology between the two, the biggest difference between them is economic interests and class.

3.The definition of Ideology for Althusser is a means of class struggle and a tool of class rule. In other words, they emphasized that ideology is mainly conceived by people for the needs of their own class interests. Moreover, ideology is the living condition of people’s self-imagination and reality. For example, in academics, students believe that grades are very important in their own perceptions, and grades will affect the status of the future in society, work, ranking in the class, and parents’ attitudes towards children, etc., because people who work hard have income. The bigger you are, the higher your class can be in society. These ideas reflect the real living conditions in society.

Nikita Vasilyev – D.B. 3.1.

  1. It seems to me, that ideology could be viewed as a set of ideas and ideals that stretch past a single individual, which differs it from a life philosophy. Ideology strikes on our desire to have a collective consciousness, to have something in common with other people and, through having that something, belong to an entity larger than ourselves. This makes ideology a necessary and indispensable tool for social control whether it is a family, a corporation, a political party or a whole country. Ideology sets up a variety of ideals or a vision, to which an individual, or a group, should aspire. If we look at the presidential campaign of Donald Trump, who promised to “Make America Great Again”, we could see an ideology at work – a vision of Greater America appealed to many Americans who, under severe media pressure, chose to trust an authoritarian leader who connected with them through emotional tantrums and contempt for “dirty” and corrupt politicians. 

Now, ideology does not have to be rational – numerous examples from 20th century could help us see that some state ideologies (e.g., communism, fascism) or cultural ideologies (drug culture of the 1960s) were successful without being rational or long-lasting. In my opinion, ideology captivates people because of its somewhat divine ability to hold power over others – if we take Cold War, both West and East were confident in their rightness and did not stop trying to get more and more influence in countries that appeared undecided in their socio-economic direction.  

It seems to me, that with the seeming statistical success of capitalism and the rise of individualism in the West, the concept of ideology is undergoing some changes: it is becoming more aggressive and more pro-active in recruiting people that have failed to develop their own ideology and a moral code. It should not be a surprise to see a revival of age-old ideologies such as nationalism, racism, sexism and blatant propaganda – individual freedom, education and the power of choice are detrimental for social control and the position of the ruling class. 

2. In my view, the role of government intervention is the dividing line between liberal and conservative ideologies. While controversial civic issues such as abortion, drug legalization and gun control might have its supporters and opponents on both sides of the political spectrum, I believe that the question of “What happens to my tax money?” is what makes voters choose what party to affiliate with. As we saw in the “Crash Course” video, family and school are big determinants in political education – it seems to me that this system takes care of the age-old issue of “individual vs. collective” perfectly. An individual is constantly tormented by a question “What is common good?”, or “How do we get affluent as a group?” – in the U.S. one can praise individual freedom (right) or equality (left) and find a political party that sees the issue in the same way. A common notion that people’s political preferences change with age, turning from liberalism towards conservatism, might depend on a higher salary that one draws as one gets older – the notion of smaller government and smaller taxation will naturally come as sensible, while for a young professional of a minority group, burdened by institutionalized racism (or sexism) and student debt, voting for a liberal party will appear to be most reasonable. 

3. I think Althusser’s definition of ideology is very dark, dystopian and technological – to see people as “cogs in a capitalist machine” and see them as subjects, not individuals are ways to covertly express one’s disgust for humanity and political systems of the time. It seems, Althusser might have been depressed by behavior psychology and the technological advances that influenced academia by simplifying or explaining certain patterns of human behavior, including behavior in groups. The simplicity of that view could have presented previous works of social scientists and philosophers as wrong, weak or even redundant – to fall into “we are all parts of a big machine and nothing else” is no surprise. I think to present ideology as non-existent and “virtual” is a smart way to rebel against it and pretend it does not exist, but at that point it is easy to confuse ideology with common sense – how far can one get claiming that there is no need to put a question mark at the end of the sentence if grammar is an imaginary social control structure? 

Discussion post 3.1- Jasmin Amigon

Ideology is an accumulation of different ideas and or beliefs that are shared among a group of people, culture, or individual. Usually, ideology refers to a collection of political beliefs or a set of ideas that describe a particular culture. It exists to establish certain political beliefs that, serve the interests of some people, or to make a working role in relation to social, economic, and political.

An example of ideology could be feminism and identity political views.

American conservatives believe that a large government poses a threat to individual liberty, they usually support and a strong national defense, traditional American values, and the free market are believed to provide great economic opportunity and benefit many people. On the other hand, Liberalist cherishes equality as the primary political view and they see the government as a necessary agent in promoting equality. Family and parents can influence one’s political outlook in positive or negative ways. Social groups can also play a role in where one stands politically. A big difference or dividing line is how Liberal policies generally emphasize the need for the government to solve people’s problems. While Conservative policies generally emphasize the empowerment of the individual to solve problems. An example could be the welfare system. Liberals support welfare because it provides for the poor without welfare life below the poverty line would be intolerable. However, conservatives oppose long-term welfare because they believe there should be opportunities to make it possible for poor and low-income workers to become self-reliant. 

Althusser’s definition of ideology is how ideology can be a very useful tool that exists primarily in school, media, and politics. Since school is mandatory for all kids the ideology in schools plays a huge role in our society. School is a powerful ideological state apparatus because they are forced and it’s a way to get kids to think in a certain way, behave and comply with authority that will prepare them for the future.