- The court system is more suitable for protecting an individual than the elected branch of the government, because each person has more than one court system ready to protect his or her rights. For example, the case Miranda v. Arizona, Ernesto Miranda was accused of kidnapping and rape in violation of state law Arrested, he was easily convicted and sentenced to jail, but he continued to appeal to the Supreme Court, and finally found that the police had violated the Fifth Amendment, in the end Miranda won the case. This proves that the court system protects everyone’s rights.
2. I agree that the Supreme Court is an anti-democratic part of our government, because federal judges are not elected by the people, but appointed by the government. And because federal judges are appointed by the government, this has resulted in government officials being protected from it. For example, when a case between a government official and an ordinary citizen is tried in the Supreme Court, the government official will have a certain advantage, because the Supreme Court will protect the interests of the government official.
1.According to Martin Luther King, we can use human nature and morality to distinguish between just and unjust laws. A just law protects the rights of the people, and morality is the first. On the contrary, an unjust law deprives human rights . It is not rooted in the laws of nature.
2.I think just laws will have an impact on individuals or society as a whole, because just laws respect human nature and morality. It allows people to improve their personal virtues and morals and has a positive impact on individuals or society as a whole. But unjust laws damage the existence of humanity and morality, and it will bring unfairness to society.
3.I think the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is a just law, because the First Amendment protects the people’s freedom of speech, which is the people’s most basic personal right. Basically, the amendments to the U.S. Constitution are just laws. And the The Patriot Act is an unjust law, because every regulation violates the privacy and human rights of the people, and there are unfair factors that cause law enforcement officers to have great powers.
1.The war on terrorism is a war of ideas. There is no clear enemy in that war. It makes people sensitive and fears that those around them may become terrorists. Moreover, the new laws formulated by the government could easily violate the rights of the people. Traditional wars are wars that have clear enemies and are launched against these territories and resources.
2.The “Roving Wiretaps” of the Patriot Act seems to violate the Fourth Amendments of the US Constitution. Because the Fourth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution stipulates that investigators must apply for and obtain a search warrant before searching and detaining suspects, and the “Roving Wiretaps “Of the Patriot Act allows investigators to allow wiretapping of suspicious spies and terrorists, and they do not need to apply for a search warrant.
3.Sneak and Peek” Warrants means that the FBI can search homes or businesses without immediately notifying the investigative target. This violates the Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Because the Fourth Amendment is the right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated. And Sneak and Peek” Warrants allow investigators to search the houses of suspicious persons without providing notice that may jeopardize the investigation, which violates the people’s houses and wealth.
1.Establishment Clause is part of the First Amendment. It actually protects two related freedoms: one is to protect people from the religious beliefs imposed on them by the government, and the other is to protect people from government authorities restricting their religious beliefs. , The first of these two freedoms is called the establishment clause. Congress is prohibited from creating or promoting state-supported religions. The related “Lemon Test” is used to determine whether laws or other government actions that may promote specific religious practices should be allowed. The “lemon test” has three standards: 1. The behavior or law must not cause excessive entanglement between the government and religion; 2. The action or law cannot either inhibit or advance religious practice; it should be neutral in its effects on religion. 3. The action or law must have some secular purpose; there must be some non-religious justification for the law.
2.Burning the American flag is protected by the First Amendment, because this behavior is also freedom of speech, and the U.S. Congress must not enact laws restricting citizens’ freedom of speech. Reading 9.1 wrote, “in 1989, the Supreme Court decided in Texas v. Johnson that burning the flag was a form of symbolic speech protected by the First Amendment and found the law, as applied to flag desecration, to be unconstitutional. This court decision was strongly criticized, and Congress responded by passing a federal law, the Flag Protection Act, intended to overrule it; the act, too, was struck down as unconstitutional in 1990.”
3.When someone says “I’m taking the Fifth,” people have the right not to provide evidence that may constitute a confession or criminal responsibility to the court or law enforcement officials. In addition, in a criminal trial, if someone does not testify for their defense, the prosecution cannot use failure to testify as evidence of guilt or imply that an innocent person will testify.
1.The primary differences in the role of citizens in government, among the federal, confederation, and unitary systems are that the federal has established two levels of government to distribute the power of the central government, elected by voters across the country. The power of Confederation is decentralized. The ability of the central government to act depends on the consent of the local government. The local government is also elected by voters. Unitary systems are all powers concentrated in the central government, so that the local government needs to rely on the central government, and the power of citizens will decline.
2.The system of division of power is to decentralize the power of the central government to local governments to establish an autonomous government. The people have the power to elect representatives. The national constitution establishes three independent government departments. Legislative, judicial and executive powers are allocated to two levels of government. Each branch has its own power and scope of influence, ensuring that no branch can occupy a dominant position. Prevent power from being held by one person, thereby protecting the power and freedom of the people.
3.During the COVID-19 pandemic, the federal government promulgated several bills and provided financial resources to help state governments. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, many people face unemployment, the government provided unemployment benefits to help workers and some small companies. Each state also has different ways to respond to COVID-19.These measures only depend on the state government’s decision, such as closing the city, starting online classes and offices, etc.
1.”Factions” remind me of political parties, a group of people gathered together to protect and promote their economic interests and political views.
2.According to Federalist #10, the source of wealth is human abilities. He believes that talent and wisdom can get more wealth. The rich have enough funds to train talents, so the born rich are still rich. But the poor did not have the funds to train talents at the beginning, so those born in poverty are still poor.
3.I agree with the author’s explanation of wealth and poverty, because now the gap between rich and poor has not changed, and people born in rich families are still rich, but most people in poor families are still poor.
4.The core mission (“first object”) of the US government is protecting the interests of the rich, which does not surprise me, because the means of production and commodities are private in capitalism, so they will choose to protect their wealth. Moreover, the core mission of the government is different in today’s society, because now the government also provides welfare and assistance to the working class, but the gap between the rich and the workers has not changed.
5.I am not surprised that Federalist #10 is not in favor of democracy, and supports a Republican (representative) form of government.Because he believes that the republic can protect the interests of the wealthy class. The author dislikes a (pure) democratic form of government because the proportion of workers is very large.He believes that a democratic government will take away personal property rights, which is unfair to a small number of wealthy classes.
1.According to readings 6.1 and 6.2, the wealthy class has formulated a constitution, and the middle class and working class are excluded and not allowed to participate in this process. The purpose of their constitution is to protect the interests of the rich from the working class, because the working class is the majority of the population.
2.I think the social class structure of early American society is the same as ours today. Because the wealthy class is still in the minority, while the working class is still in the majority. Although men and women are now equal, people also have a certain income, but The gap between the affluent class and the working class has not changed.
3.The people who drafted the constitution were so afraid of democracy because the majority of people in society were the working class, and the wealthy class accounted for a very small proportion. Secondly, the purpose of the people who drafted the constitution was to protect their interests, and the working class would choose to overthrow the constitution.
1.According to reading 5.1, the author uses the formula MC-M’ to explain how capitalists maintain and increase their wealth. M is currency, C is a commodity, M’ represents surplus value, M’ is greater than M: M’ is equal to M plus m, where “M” is commonly referred to as income or profit, which is called surplus value. When the price of the commodity is lower than its value, the capitalist can earn surplus value. And capitalists will buy the labor of workers, and labor will increase the value of commodities. The more labor the worker puts on the commodity, the higher the value of the commodity. The commodity is private, and the worker’s wages are only a small part of the total value, so capitalists can get a lot of benefits from it.