1. Ideology, according to Althusser, is an individual’s formation of views that serve the owning class. Ideology is formed via socialization, which determines who a person is based on their participation in society. Conservative politics, for example, is an ideology based on the belief that people can be distinguished by their abilities, talents, or possessions. Being “self-sufficient” or having a large sum of money is considered successful. The working class was regarded as sluggish and underachieving. Conservatives are reactive because they oppose any changes that might reduce inequality and encourage reform. 

2. According to Althusser, the state develops its own apparatus where it can make citizens subject to those apparatus willingly. The kinds of ISA then include education, media, religious institutions, family, law. They function differently in terms of the conformity they demand from the citizens to continue the division or creation of the ownership of capital and making people who will submit to the ideas of a particular production system. For, Althusser education is the most important ideological apparatus. It is because first it substitutes the role of the church and second it is through education where a class structure is built based on the idea of meritocracy and achievement while making conforming individuals.

3. According to Althusser, ideology is the creation of beliefs that benefit the owning class. Ideology is established through socialization, which shapes a person’s identity based on their social engagement. For example, conservative politics is built on the concept that people can be distinguished based on their abilities, talents, or possessions. It is regarded as successful to be “self-sufficient” or to have a substantial sum of money. Working-class people were thought to be lazy and underachieving. Conservatives are reacting as a result of their opposition to any changes that might reduce inequality and promote reform.

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