1. Crack cocaine began in the early 1980s. People go to jail because of the possession of drugs. According to the article, crack cocaine started to spread rapidly in poor black neighborhoods in the United States. Michelle Alexander’s shows that mainstream American has so many people in prison also known as mass incarceration is the fact that there’s a lot being committed.  “Alexander also contrasts the hugely different outcome of convictions and sentences between whites and people of color, even though all colors use and sell illegal drugs at a similar rate” This basically means that most people who use drugs are more likely to be involved in drug-related crimes than are young white Americans.

2. Racial disparities in the rates of incarceration cannot be explained by the rates of drug crimes because all ethnicities in America or in races hate to use the word racist because there are no races among humans. Drug use is widespread. Any American from any social stratification or groups can be potentially a drug user or drug addict. In fact that minorities people of color are over represented in the criminal justice system in the prisons it’s not because people of color use drugs that’s not real. 

3. In my point of view “the American penal system has emerged as a system of social control unparalleled in world history” means that the American criminal system is profoundly corrupt and is being used to control specific groups within the country. Also given the high prevalence of racial minorities in jails and prisons, one could argue that the establishment of such a criminal justice system is unprecedented.

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