We’re Back!

We hope the summer has treated you well!

We are glad to inform you that the Makerspace will be reopening Wednesday, September 1st, 2021! Our planned schedule for the Fall semester is Mondays, Wednesdays, & Fridays, 10 AM – 3PM

If you are new to the BMCC Makerspace, you can find useful information (including available equipment, opening hours, tutorials etc.) on the rest of our website.

You are welcome to stop by at any time during opening hours – whether it’ll be your first time in the space or you were a “regular” before the pandemic. 

Please note that we will be limiting occupancy to five people to help maintain social distancing for the time being.

If you have a project in mind and want to ensure you’ll be able to use a specific tool at a specific time, please email Kar, the lab manager (krosen@bmcc.cuny.edu) to reserve your spot. You can also email Kar and Anna Pinkas, the Makerspace director (apinkas@bmcc.cuny.edu) with any questions, ideas for individual or class projects etc. – we are always excited to hear from you.

Please stay in touch and stay informed about future events by checking back here on the Blog and following us on Instagram.

We look forward to the coming semester, and are excited to help you bring your ideas to life in-person again!

Things I Found on The Internet: Earth

Things I Found on the Internet will be an ongoing blog series highlighting cool things found on the internet that aren’t maker related, but might be enjoyable or good references or examples of design to experience.
 
Today’s Theme Is: Earth Exploration! We started out in the depths of space, but now we’ve landed back on on our home planet to explore. From the deepest seas, to the highest mountains, learning how they were made as well as understanding climate change and disasters– through comparison videos, interactive data visualization, and more!

From the furthest depths of deep space we go to the depths of our very oceans– which are less explored than space!

Another one of Neal’s works should also be highlighted– The Deep Sea is a scrolling adventure from the surface of the ocean to the bottom of the Challenger Deep– the deepest known place in the ocean. In between you learn some neat facts and see many different kinds of weird and wonderful creatures that live under the surface!

For more sea expiration, we have a video from Tech Insider and another from RealLifeLore exploring the depths of our seas! Natural World Facts has a 16 minute video exploration of our oceans and a site for further exploration.

Xavier Bourry created a simple  Ocean Simulator for Google Experiments. Monokai created the Deep Sea Stress, where you create a deep sea creature. David Li lets us play with wave physics.

NASA has a game geared towards kids that helps understand ocean currents. For adults, games like Beyond Blue and Abzu recreate the experience of ocean exploration. (Beyond Blue and Abzu need to be purchased.)

If video infographics are your thing, MetalBall Studios and Red Side are at it again with tsunami comparisons. Reigarw Comparisons has a good one, and Mahma Comparisons uses the Statue of Liberty and the rest of lower Manhattan as a reference.

We return back on land to explore the tallest mountains– some of them quite literally out of this world!

Red Side has a comparison of some of the tallest mountains on Earth, compared with Olympus Mons on Mars.

Metal Ball Studios here again comparing some mountains on other planets and moons in our solar system! Even cooler is a visualization of just how deep the inside of our planet is!

Brain Chicken’s version adds a little more information on Olympus Mons, but is more or less similar to the other two. 

Garrett Butler on Unsplash

The history of our planet’s geology and its plate tectonics are tied to one another, so instead of keeping them separate, I put them together. Our planet is a dynamic one, which has helped us harbor life, but also some of our most devastating disasters– if the tsunami comparisons above have proven anything. The ground beneath us has moved for millions of years before us and will continue to do so on a very slow and long scale.

ChronoZoom explores scales from the universal, to our geologic, biologic, and even human timescales! This is a joint venture made between Microsoft, The University of California Berkeley, and Lomonosov Moscow State University.

The University of Alberta has an interactive tool on the Geologic Time Scale for their Dino 101 Coursera Course (It’s not technically geology related, it’s a free course so if you’re into paleontology it might be worth checking out!)

Deeptime shows our geologic time scale as a 12 hour clock. The longer you stay on the page, it will calculate those seconds/minutes into years compared on the geologic time scale. The actual hands of the clock itself shows your current time. (I thought that was neat.)

eduMedia’s Geologic Clock is a little more interactive, though some of the elements are subscription locked.

Ancient Earth Globe lets you explore how the Earth looked from 750 million years ago to today. You can also search for a city and it will show you where that place was in your chosen time.

GPlates is software to help visualize and and simulate plate tectonics. You can down load it for free and explore it on your own, or explore some other simulations created by others.

Earth Viewer is another interactive visualization that shows the geology of the planet throughout its history.

The Smithsonian Magazine has a interactive page showing the history of the earth in a few select snapshots.

New York Times has an animated infographic on continental drift.

Christopher Scotese’s Paleomap Project‘s Quicktime and Flash animations were my go-to back in the day, but sadly in 2021 is a bit of an early 2000s internet relic. Luckily his simulations are now videos on YouTube!

Algol creates a 11 minute time-lapse of the geologic time scale.

While not educational, but available for purchase is this World Creator engine, a tool in creating your own worlds!

Marc Szeglat on Unsplash

Created by plate tectonics, vulcanism is the phenomena of molten rock eruptions. This isn’t just on Earth, geology shows it has happened on most of our terrestrial planets– and even on the moon Io! (Titan and Pluto have a similar phenomena called cryovulcanism which is ice or liquid gases like methane instead of rock!)

The US Geologic Survey keeps an eye out on volcanic hazards on the what is known as the “Ring of Fire”, a rift that covers a large swathe of the northern Pacific ocean.

National Geographic has a interactive infographic of Earth’s Major Volcanoes.

Our World in Data has a infographic covering significant volcanic activity from 1750 BCE to 2007 CE.

Apparently many designers like to revisit old infographics and improve upon them. Rachael Dottle updated another infographic showing the volcanoes that have erupted since 1880. Here is the original infographic from Lazaro Gamio.

Robert Curtis takes one of his friends’ Danny Bradley’s static infographic on volcanoes active since Krakatoa (1883) and makes it interactive.

For videos, Reigarw Comparisons shows the comparative power of these volcanoes on YouTube, and Mahma Comparisons shows the largest eruptions.

While not available for the public I came across this Volcano Simulator directed for educators and museums to show eruptions in real time from the safety of virtual reality.

Karsten Würth on Unsplash

On a more serious note; our planet’s changing climate is a a concerning and important issue. Not just for us, but for everything on the planet itself. All the same, many of creators have made informative and interactive ways to understanding this phenemenon.

NASA has a Climate Time Machine, where you can see the changes of our planet over time, depending on the entry. Things like the Arctic ice minimum from 1979 to 2020, global temperatures, and more.

Earth is a global map of different, wind, water, and air conditions, that uses real time data, or data going back as far as 1981.

The Climate Impact Lab creates a map shows temperature changes from 1981 to predictions beyond 2020 to 2099 in the US and some countries around the globe.

Bloomberg Green has a interactive infographic, comparing the ability to estimate how we can slow global warming, depending on what actions you device to make.

Future Cities is an interactive map showing the predicted temperature rise in specific cities. What Will the Climate Feel Like in 60 Years? is a similar interactive map made by the University of Maryland– but with a specific date of 60 years from now, assuming things do not change before then.

The  LA Times has a simple interactive game focusing on beach erosion, Christina Tarquini uses Chrome Experiments to explore the ocean in Diving into an Acidifying Ocean.

Marc Szeglat on Unsplash

Natural disasters are part and parcel of our existence on a dynamic planet with a tectonic activity, an atmosphere and oceans full of currents that create our climate and weather. Keeping an eye and tracking patterns and preparation is the only way to live with them, and their consequences.

While these are more geared for children, these interactive disaster preparation games are worth checking out! (Unfortunately I had found several that are Shockwave/Flash based and won’t work in 2021). Others were like paid seminar style projects for professional, which important, doesn’t help us

The Smithsonian has created Disaster Detector to teach you how to analyze and predict disasters to hep better prepare. The above link is flash based; but they have a version for iOS devices.

Ready.gov’s Disaster Master is more like an interactive comic covering all kinds of disaster preparation.

Classic Reload, has restored an old DOS era game Firestorm, which is a forest fire simulator. Interactivate has Fire!!, among other interactive activities (under their Learner tab).

The United Nations created Stop Disasters to understand the risks disasters pose and how to prepare with a limited set of resources.

For video comparisons, we have Latos Charts showing off every earthquake that has occurred from 1900 to 2019.

Mahna Comparisons shows the largest magnitude earthquakes ever measured.

Reigarw Comparisons has some on wildfires, earthquakes, tornadoes, and hurricanes.

Red Side has one on tornadoes and hurricanes as well.

That’s all I have for now! Next time, we’ll be taking a look into the life and biology– real and speculative!

Things I Found on the Internet: Space & Spacetime

NASA on Unsplash

Things I Found on the Internet will be an ongoing blog series highlighting cool things found on the internet that aren’t maker related, but might be enjoyable or good references or examples of design to experience.
 
Today’s Theme Is: Space and Spacetime! These are interactive visualizations, games, and videos that are both entertaining and informative about space and spacetime itself.

Greg Rakozy on Unsplash

The observable universe is really, really big. 93 billion light years! It means light from that edge would take 93 billion years to each our eyes! (How can that be if our galaxy is only 13.8 billion years old? The simple answer is because the universe has been expanding since the big bang– if you’re more curious about I recommend looking into general relativity.)

The following are some interactive data visualizations and videos that can help visualize and put in perspective just how big everything is!

The Scale of the Universe by Cary and Michael Huang has been around since the days of Flash, it’s one of my personal favorites to use as a fun and playful way of data visualization. Travel from theoretical quantum planck length to the span of the observable universe! 

Neal Agarwal has created The Size of Space with more updated information and a more mobile friendly design. Start off with the size of a human and travel to the scale of the observable universe!

In a similar vein, Josh Worth created If the Moon Were Only 1 Pixel is a side scrolling experience that shows relative distances and sizes of our Solar System’s planets (and some of its moons and dwarf planets).

Nikon hosts its own scale, called  Universcale. They allow you to explore each entry and share facts from protons to the known universe!

YouTube has a host of comparison videos! Metal Ball Studios have created videos comparing the size of comets, asteroids, moons,  exoplanets, stars, and galaxies

Honorable mention for Red Side, which uses Starkiller Base from Star Wars as a reference in theirs, and also dedicating 20 minutes to universal comparison.

Harry Evett and Times Infinity are more updated, being made in 2020 and 2021 respectively.

Casey Horner on Unsplash

Spacetime is the concept that time is as much as dimension as length/width/height. It helps explains some effects of things traveling faster than light. Which at this moment, I will recommend PBS’ Space Time YouTube channel for more equally mind blowing information about spacetime and our universe.

This section covers some neat data visualization on the history of our universe.

NASA has a static chart to view, which is great, but not so interactive.

The 2019 Nobel Prize in Physics has created a little interactive data visualization and video explaining the current theory of the history of of our universe.

The Cosmic Calendar is a way to understand our universe’s history broken down to the scale of one year. (We only arrive on the last few seconds of of December 31st to put it in perspective.) An unknown person (or persons) put together the Cosmic Calendar in Google Calendars .

Melodysheep has created a beautiful 13 minute video timelapsing from the Big Bang to today. He’s followed up with a 25 minute video from now to the current theory of the end of universe. (Don’t panic! It won’t be for another sexdecillion years– that’s 1 with 96  zeroes.)

(Semi-related–I also recommend his Symphony of Science and Terra Lumina projects if you enjoy music.)

If you’re short on time, Bright Side breaks it down real quick with eight minute videos on the Beginning and End of the Universe. (Though I do recommend melodysheep’s more.)

NASA on Unsplash

Explore the universe from the comfort of your computer! In this section, I will share some simulators and video “tours” of the universe. Some of the simulators are free, some will have to be purchased, and I’ll let you know which.

Deep Space Map is a little older and made by stitching photos together and limited to a few cosmic objects, but I appreciate it’s early web feel. It’s reminiscent of the original Google Sky– which you can still explore.

You can also explore the original Google Moon and Google Mars, sites they had before they integrated it all into Google Maps. The benefit to this is you can explore other terrestrial planets (Venus, Mercury, Mars), and some of the solar system’s moons, and even inside the International Space Station! To see this feature you just need to keep zooming out on Earth until a lar on the left side of the user interface appears.

100,000 Stars is a Chrome Experiment made by Google Data Arts Team to explore beyond our solar system to the edge of our own Milky Way! It humorously warns Scientific accuracy is not guaranteed. Please do not use this visualization for interstellar navigation.

Michael Chang’s One Million Stars works in a similar fashion, but with the Online Star Registry. So if you registered a star in someone’s name, you can find it!

The Sky Live is a real time planetarium showing you what the sky is like from a position on Earth. (You can set to where you want!) This is more akin to the newer Google Sky Map app for mobile devices. (There’s plenty of planetarium apps on Google and iOS so take a look!)

Space Engine is a paid simulator game, but older versions are free. It is not available for Mac and Linux machines, though.

Universe Sandbox is just as it is as described. Using the known laws of physics of our own universe, you can create (or destroy) your own universe! Or travel and explore our own! It is available on PC, Mac, Linux, and several VR systems!

Or if you want to go open source, there’s a few. Celestia is a free space simulator that can work on PC, as well as macOS, iOS, and Android. There’s also a site for addons created by other you can add to improve your experience (like adding an Imperial Star Destroyer just because).

Open Space was created by the American Museum of Natural History with several universities as a open source data visualization software of the observable universe. It is still in Beta, but you can still play around with it.

Partiview is another open source data visualization tool created by the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. It states it is a tool for “4D assets”, meaning most of its usage is as space simulator.

AMNH has a Digital Universe section, where you can see their mapping efforts in either of these software.

If you’d rather just watch, Cater Emmart, Director of astrovisiulization at AMNH’S Hayden Planetarium has created a guided tour of the known universe. Or a quick little six minute tour with their actual Planetarium software.

(Bonus: Not educational but popped up when I was looking for Celestia, there’s a mobile app called Solar Smash. It’s less about exploring the solar system and more on wrecking it. I had a bit of fun exploring it that I couldn’t help sharing.)

Next time, we return from our cosmic journey to explore the deepest oceans and highest mountains of our own planet!

Vinyl Cutting & You!

Photo by Anna Shvets from Pexels

This is an ongoing blog post series covering tools in the makerspace one can purchase for their at-home making needs.

3D Printing | Laser Cutting

This is an educational post and I have not been sponsored by any of these companies in any way.

I personally think vinyl cutters are and often slept on machines in the Makerspace. Sure, it cannot cut wood or acrylic, or even leather in some of the cases of these machines, but it is fast and just as effective as the laser cutter with all kinds of paper without the fire hazard. (And unlike a laser cutter– it can cut vinyl without releasing toxic gas!) And price wise, they are more affordable than some of the smaller laser engravers I mentioned in my last post, like Cubiio and Laserpecker.

A vinyl cutter is another type of CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machine, much like the 3D printer, laser cutter, and other machines like mills and lathes! While a 3D printer has its nozzle, the laser cutter its laser, the mill its drill bits, the vinyl cutter uses blades (and other tools) to cut and score materials.

These machines are used very often in the DIY community in creating papercraft, cards and invitations, paper decorations, and even vinyl stickers and tee shirts! Some of these machines also have other accessories that can plot calligraphy with markers, and with some they can be bundled with a heat press or one can purchase it extra. 

(You can in the case of iron ons still use an iron too! Presses make sure the heat is evenly distributed and make for a better press in my opinion, but in a pinch an iron is just fine!)

Unlike some of the other machines mentioned in my previous posts, some of these vinyl cutters have a good fortune of being able to be easily purchased in store as opposed to online only. Michael’s Crafts usually has a few aisles dedicated to Cricut or Silhouette machines.

This isn’t entirely a comprehensive list, but my search has led me to very little compared to some of the other machines. The prices listed are the starting price– accessories, addons, and shipping is not considered. So be mindful if you’re budgeting!

Some Things to Consider:

Photo by Rene Vincit on Unsplash

Some of these machines come with a proprietary software to design and export. If you plan on learning how to design in them, that’s great, but be advised you may be limited, as they aren’t entirely all that great or sophisticated as say, a design program. I prefer using another vector editing software like Adobe Illustrator, CorelDraw or Inkscape first and importing it to the proprietary software to print it. 

Inkscape is free, and open source, and used among the DIY community in tandem with their cutter’s software, so there’s bound to be plenty of tutorials and guides online for you!

Also be aware of what machine you get and what blade you need to use. You will need to replace the blade frequently. How frequently is determined by how often it is used and with what material. Working with thicker materials might need more frequent replacement. Working with cardstock very frequently may need a replacement every 3-5 months. We replace our blades usually every semester or so. Make sure to do a test cut before each job to check the blade. If it doesn’t cut through even something like paper– it might be dull and need to be replaced.

As each machine can only use their own brand of blade, make sure what you purchase is the right thing! You can use a Silhouette blade on a Cricut, try as you might!

Craft Vinyl Cutters:


Photo by Kira auf der Heide on Unsplash

Cricut: Cricut has several machines: the tiny (and adorable looking) Joy, to the Explore Air, to the workhorse Maker. All three have the ability to cut, score, and plot with a marker for calligraphic elements.

The Joy is small but excellent for starters or people who are casual dabblers. It operates through a bluetooth connection instead of a wired connection and can be used on your mobile device or computer. Reviews say it isn’t great for very intricate designs or thick materials. But at $180 USD, it is a nice starter machine.

The Explore Air at a glance uses a dial any you manually set the material you use (with a custom option for newer materials/setting in the design space), and a slot for the older Cricut cartridges. Like the Maker, it has a dual tool slot, meaning it can do two actions at once, ie. cut and score. It also has a “Fast Mode” increasing the speed of the cut for certain materials. At $250 USD is it also a good starter machine for someone who is more than a casual DIYer. This can be used over a bluetooth connection or if using a computer, can be plugged in directly with a USB cable.

The Maker is what we use in our Makerspace. As I said before, it is a workhorse, and can work with thin cardboard and leather. It has a dual tool slot, and a wide array of tools to use, some you may need to purchase on your own. But the adaptive tool system includes blades, scoring tools and wheels and embossing devices for a wide array of projects. Adjusting your material and tools are done in the proprietary software. At $400 USD it is a bit of an investment, but frankly in my opinion a worthy one.

Other Cricut accessories heat presses for their iron-ons, as well as mats to use the presses on. They also have a wide array of materials made for their machines to use from iron vinyl to pleather.

Cricut’s proprietary software, Cricut Design Space, is a browser based application. It has some preselect designs, and more to purchase, or you can import your own designs. It can be used offline too.

Silhouette: These are probably the most direct competitors to Cricut. The Cameo 4 is their basic standard machine. It too, has a dual too housing for multiple actions. Unlike the earlier model of the Cameo (like we have), the newer version you can cut on the mat, or if your material is on a roll, it can be set up in a roll feeder. It does come with a few blades and accessories to start with, but you will need to purchase others at need and over time. At $300 USD it does beat out the Cricut Maker in price, but not by much.

The Cameo Plus, is exactly the Cameo 4, but as a wider workspace (up to 15 inches wide) and according to Silhouette, can cut thicker materials. At $400 USD, it is comparable to the Cricut Maker, but can do designs up to 15 inch wide. The Cameo Pro is just like the Plus, all the same features but with a 24 inch wide workspace. At $500 USD it is high for a craft level machine, but it is starting to dip towards an industrial cutter by terms of size.

The Portrait 3 can work with material up to 8 inches wide, and while not as robust as the Cameo, is likely more closer on par to the Cricut Joy. At $200, it is an excellent beginner machine so long as you keep it to small projects.

The Curio is limited to an 8.5 by 6 inch space, but not only can cut paper and vinyl, it also has embossing capabilities (that can even do metal)! At $250, it is an affordable machine, but I feel its appeal is more if you are more into embossing than cutting.

Like the Maker, these Cameos have many material and tool settings in its proprietary software, Silhouette Studio. It too comes with some free designs and more you can purchase from the, This is an actual application installed on your machine. These can all be used with bluetooth or with a USB connection.

Silhouette has other machines too! The Mint makes rubber stamps and the Alta is a basic 3D printer!

Brother: Brother, as you may or may not know, is a company more known for inkjet printers, and embroidery machines, which is why I was surprised to find out they make vinyl cutters too! Brother machines seem to be more geared toward quilting, but you can cut non fabric materials and even foam.

The ScanNCut SDX125E starts at $400 USD, and allows you to edit on a computer or mobile device wireless, or through a USB connection, or on the screen of the cutter itself. As the name suggests, it scans (at 600 DPI) as well as cuts. It only has the one too housing, but it can autodetect thickness, but only limited to a .1 inch thickness. Brother has its own software called Canvas Workspace, that is similar to Cricut’s Design Studio being web and cloud based.

The SDX85 goes $350 with many of the same capabilities.

CM350E goes for $350 with many of the same capabilities, save the CM350E has a .08 inch thickness limit and only scans at 300 DPI.

At the time of the writing many of these machines are out of stock, or unable to find prices to compare, but it looks like their machines are between $300-$400 USD and have the bonus of a scanner as well as a cutter. However, further research indicates it doesn’t have a great blade force compared to the Maker or Cameo, meaning it may be limiting in material. Perhaps this might be more for those into quilting than anything else.

In Short: There’s a nice handful of machines with pros and cons, some a little more specialized than general use. On top of price, I’d also connoisseur the frequency of use, the materials you wish to work on and whether or not you’re going to do more in the future.

My Pick: The Cricut Maker. Overall it has the best reviews, and the most capabilities in materials to use. They also can be purchased in stores and have a whole slew of materials and add ons you can buy physically in stores and online. The software is something to be desired but if you’re like me, you’re probably using Illustrator/CorelDraw/Inkscape for your designs anyway.

Though I will say for all the material Circuit has…Silhouette has inkjet friendly temporary tattoo paper that actually lasts well. You can use it on the Cricut too, though!

Industrial Cutters/Plotters:

Photo by Rémi Müller on Unsplash

These are the sorts used for signage and large scale projects, I won’t focus too much on them, as I’m sharing them more for educational purposes. Maybe it’s something you plan on investing on in your makerspace because you want to do large scale work. I’m not here to judge, just provide you with some models to check out.

(If you are interested in getting an industrial plotter on a budget, you might be able to find older models on marketplace sites like eBay, Craigslist, or Facebook Marketplace. But I’d still use these sites as your starting point for research.)

Roland: Roland Has a desktop vinyl cutter from the $600 USD STIKA to the $2000 USD DG CAMM-1 GS-24, but also has large size printer/cutters, and other tools like laser engravers! As some of these involve asking for a quote, I’ll safely guess they are $10,000 USD or more. 

Graphtec: Again, many of these machines are asking for information for a quote, so I’m going to assume these are $10,000 USD or more. Their F-MARK2 is a cutter for labels/stickers/cards, but can’t find a price. The CE-Lite-50 is a 20 inch wide desktop cutter that has plugin support for vector editing software and Silhouette Studio in their proprietary software. With a $600 price tag, it’s good for an industrial cutter but frankly I’d still veer people towards the craft cutter like the Maker.

USCutter: Hosts several brands like Titan, Mimaki, and PrismCut. These can start at $600 USD desktop machines to $6000 USD industrial cutters or plotters. There are many models to browse through!

In Short: I am out of my element here, so I can’t give any advice. I’ve only had the opportunity to design for a large scale plotter, never operated one. So no “My Pick” here, sorry!

Further Research:

Photo by Kelly Sikkema on Unsplash

Unlike 3D Printers or Laser Cutters, you don’t nearly have as much of a wide net of choice with a vinyl cutter, which might be for the best. Again, I will say research, research, research! Things to keep in mind when looking for the right vinyl cutter for you:

  • Price
  • Workspace limits
  • Availability of replacement or extra parts
  • Material thickness limit
  • Size and scale of projects
  • Casual or Frequent Use

And with that, I wish you the best!

Useful Links:

Laser Cutting & You!

Photo By Gaëtan Bussy on Pixabay

This is an ongoing blog post series covering tools in the makerspace one can purchase for their at-home making needs.

3D Printing | Vinyl Cutters

This is an educational post and I have not been sponsored by any of these companies in any way.

In my last three years working in shops and makerspace, it has come to my belief that the heart of the space is the laser cutter. They are versatile tools, and a key to rapid fabrication and prototyping of multiple items in one go. The downside is…they can be very expensive.

In my previous post, I have covered  3D printers, even highlighting some 3-in-1s Like the Zmorph XV, Snapmaker, and da Vinci Pro. Many are affordable and are a laser engraver, 3D printer and miniature CNC mill. They are a viable option but may you want a standalone laser cutter.

I will be covering a few prosumer ones for use at home, as well as some industrial grade cutters. Unfortunately there seems to be more of those than machines for the hobbyist or maker. However in the future there may be many more developed.

My post is by no means a comprehensive, be-all, but a mixed bag of machines I’ve scoured the internet and checked out. Be aware the prices I list are their starting price, meaning addons, peripherals, upgrades, and shipping  will add on the price.

Before We Begin:

Photo by Michal Jarmoluk on Pixabay

A Word of Warning: 

A laser cutter beam is a beam of light that goes on infinitely– that can and  will cut things! Having one in an open containment situation could lead to potential dangers. Please be advised when purchasing these kinds of laser cutters, and have a plan for housing and operating them.

Furthermore, this also does not guarantee your eyes are protected as well! Please make sure to find laser level/laser grade glasses/laser safety goggles when purchasing a laser cutter. You can purchase them at hardware stores like Home Depot or Lowes, as well as online by suppliers. Like the cutters, make sure it’s a reputable seller– these are your eyes after all!

Another issue is ventilation and air extraction. Some systems have internal ventilation and cooling systems, some have external cooling systems, or in the case of many of the open frame models– do not ventilate at all. MAKE SURE YOU ARE PUTTING YOUR MACHINE IN A ROOM WITH VENTILATION OPEN WINDOW. Some models will come with a ventilation system you can purchase extra if that is not the case. There are some DIY options for fume extractors, but fume extractors machines can be purchased.

In my opinion the open frame laser cutters are dangerous and I would personally advise against them, however I understand these kits are on the more affordable side of things– and I am sharing them simply to illustrate the different kinds of laser machines available.

K40 machines are under $1000 USD usually, but could be a gamble. Many overstate specifications, use shoddily electronics, or are outright counterfeits that are unsafe to use. If you’re looking to just ready to go, there are other options, albeit more expensive. If you don’t mind being a bit more handy and doing a lot more research and don’t mind upgrading your machine yourself…purchase at your own risk. I will share some resources on K40s at the bottom of this post.

Do your research, have a plan, and err on the side of safety. And never, never NEVER leave your machine running unattended!

Many of these machines use proprietary software for exporting, and while you can use them to create your pieces, you can very much still use Illustrator or Inkscape to create vector artwork and import it in. Very likely using an SVG file would work best, as I am unsure if any can import EPS or AI files.

Diode vs CO2 Lasers

  • A Diode Laser or Semiconductor Laser uses a semiconductor to create the light for the laser. This is not too different from the kinds of laser used for disk readers, simply focused enough to engrave (and in some cases cut). Chances are if your machine is just an open frame (like the 3-in-1 sets), it’s like a diode laser. They tend to have a lower wattage as well. 
  • A CO2 Laser uses electrically charged carbon dioxide gas to generate the light of the laser and is directed by mirrors to create a cut. These are the ones that need ventilation and are common for industrial grade machines. The Epilog laser cutter in our makerspace is a CO2 laser.
  • A Helium-Neon Laser is like a CO2 laser, but instead uses a mix of helium and neon. Plasma cutters use this mix to generate their cutting plasma as well. Again, these are more industrial grade machines that likely aren’t for at-home use.
  • A Fiber Laser uses a fiber optic filament coated in rare elements to generate a beam. These machines can be used to cut materials like metals and the like, however few machines like these are on the market and are very, very expensive.

What’s in a Watt?

When looking for a laser cutter, you may see a number of wattage alongside the specifications. The wattage determines the strength of the laser cutter and speed of the etch. This also determines the thickness limit of your materials. Anything under 15 Watts can cut very thin material like paper– but can engrave. If cutting is what you are looking for, you may want to look for a machine that is 30 Watts or higher.

For the Hobbyist:

Photo by Tool., Inc on Unsplash

These are non industrial laser machines, meant for use at home or in a garage. Most of them a diode based lasers, and are in the open, unlike CO2 lasers. Many are considered “engravers” but can cut some materials. Some may come ready to use out of the box, other kits may need to be built by you, or need peripherals so keep an eye out when you’re doing your research.

Many of them use proprietary mobile device based apps that support vector work, but will need an internet connection to work, and are not recommended for jobs longer than an hour (personally I’d say 30 minutes is even too much bit it depends on the design.)

Cubiio: This tiny little cube is a 1.6W diode laser engraver. It was recently targeted by scammers selling copycats at very low-cost, and thus has been given a bit of a bad rap. Further concern is many of the demo videos show it being used in the open (y i k e s), which isn’t entirely safe. Cubiio has made some attempt to make it safe. It comes with a pair of laser goggles, and the app is password protected. It also has motion detection that will turn off the machine if bumped. It also emits a beeping sound while operating.

There are some cons. It still needs an internet connection and the machine app can only be run through your mobile app (but it does have a micro SD card slot as well, and uses gcode!). The site’s material listing isn’t entirely correct and has issues working with round/circular shapes. Some of the website (particularly the store) is still in Chinese– so be careful when going through translator apps if you cannot read it. Alignment is wholly eyeball based, and may lead to inaccuracy, but can be solved with a jig if you’re feeling particularly dedicated.

At $422 USD ($560 USD with the enclosure), it is affordable compared to some of the other machines in this post, but it isn’t a true laser cutter/

Laserpecker: Similar to Cubiio, this is a small 0.5W diode laser that can be mounted on a tripod (but not advised), and has the option of the small safety enclosure as well. It’s mobile device based app also has a password lock for operational safety as well as motion detection and overheating protection. It can also be powered by a USB-C power bank.

At $300 for the standalone machine, $400 USD for the L1 kit, and $460 USD for the L1 Pro kit it is slightly more affordable than the Cubiio, and also comes with extras like a case and a autofocus centering stand attachment. It also seems to lack the issue with round shapes like Cubiio has as well.

Fabool: Unlike the previous engravers, Fabool Mini is a kit in which you put together yourself. It is an open frame (!) with no safety enclosure, and the safety bed and exhaust fan are additional purchases. It is a 1.6W or 3.5W diode laser (depending on the version), and the app works both on the computer and for mobile devices.The 1.6W goes for $550 USD and the 3.5W goes for $800– with an additional $50 USD for the bed, $120 USD for the exhaust fan, and $500 for the particle filter.

For the version with an actual enclosure, it is $800 USD for the 1.6W and $1050 USD for the 3.5W version.

Universal Engraver: Universal has several different models of engravers, from the small 1.6W like Laserpecker and Cubiio for $500 USD, and series of engravers for wood and leather betweein $300 USD to $1100 USD. They also have different machines for cylindrical, glass, and metal. It’s worth a look!

In short: If you’re looking for something you might use now and again, working on a smaller scale, and just engraving and not cutting anything thicker than paper, then these are the machines to go for. My advice if purchasing these ones… work with an open window and box fan! And while the Fabool is listed, personally I think after buying all the peripherals, it is about half the price of a basic laser cutter, and at that point may consider saving up for something that can actually cut anything more than paper. 

If you are working primarily in paper, I might recommend a vinyl cutter instead. They are half the price and work very well for paper without the potential fire hazard. I will be writing up a post on some in the future!

My Pick: The Laserpecker. I like that it’s portable, comes with the safety enclosure and is somewhat affordable for a simple laser engraver. 

For the Maker:

Photo by Alexandre Debiève on Unsplash

These were made for small to mid range scale of fabrication; i.e. making jewelry for your online story, props, or something you plan on using frequently in your work. Like the hobbyist, these machines are limited to thinner materials, but have more range than the hobbyist machines. 

Usually you can cut anything up to ¼ (.25) inches with these machines.

Glowforge: This is the machine I’ve heard and seen most often. A 40 Watt CO2 Laser, it can cut materials up to 1/4 (0.25) inch, as well as etch. Setup is easy and beginner friendly, no need to build from scratch. It does need to be vented, and comes with an attachment to stick in a window. An air filter system can be purchased for extra if you’re space is without a window. Autofocus is already in the machine, as is an air assist system.

Cons to the Glowforge is the proprietary software it is browser based and needs an internet connection to work. But it is also cloud based, so the firmware updates are automatic.

The Glowforge Basic (30W) starts at $2500 USD and the Pro (45W) for $6000 USD. While pricey, it has been a favorable machine among makers, and the closest to an industrial machine for under $10,000. Its onboarding is fairly simple and the app is easy for beginners to use as well. It already has autofocus available as an option, should you be the kind inclined to use it.

Beamo: Flux Beamo is a hybrid CO2/diode laser, this at 30W. It is also a smaller bed size than the Glowforge. The standard Beamo begins at $1900 USD, and the larger 50W Beambox goes for $3300 USD. Like Glowforge it comes with an optional air venting system for windowless spaces for $800 USD. The Beambox at the very least is ready to go from the box with little to no tuning, and at 50W is on par with some of the lower end industrial laser cutters like Epilog. Another pro is it has USB and Ethernet connection, meaning it can be used offline.

More cons, it comes with its own proprietary software as well, but seems to have a computer version. You can purchase an autofocus module extra that you will need to attach on your own. (I alway manually focus my materials, so it’s not a huge make or break for me, but it might be for you!) Ventilation is a simple air with no filtration, but has a built in air assist module.

My opinion: Invest in the Flux Air when buying the Beamo. It’s only $800 more and collectively is still about the price of the Glowforge Pro. 

Laserbox (Now xTool): Is a  40W CO2 laser engraver/cutter on the same level as to the Glowforge and Beamo. While it has simple proprietary software for exporting, it has a neat feature where you can draw on your material and with a built in camera (!), use the software to etch and cut. Like Beamo, it too has USB and Ethernet connection, meaning it can be used offline as well. Laserbox also has an internal air assists and autofocus as well. 

Laserbox Basic starts at $4000 USD, and the optional (but recommended) exhaust fan for $300 USD. The Laserbox Pro goes for $6000 USD and comes with the filter box, and some materials to experiment with.

Dremel DigiLab: Camera, software can engrave hand drawn items. 40W CO2 Laser, internal air assist and autofocus capabilities. Ethernet for offline or Wireless connection, browser based software

The LC40 standalone is $6500 USD, the exhaust fan can be added on for $300 USD. The LC40 and Filtration Bundle is $8500 USD, making it starting to work on par with industrial level systems.

Muse: Full Spectrum Laser Muse has both a 40W and 45W CO2 version for the smaller desktop cutters, as well as some more industrial level machines. Muse Core has no autofocus ability, and needs external air assist with a compressor (not included). You will need to purchase an air compressor, water pump and exhaust fan. The 3D Autofocus Bunder comes with the machine, air compressor, water cooling solution and air compressor, and as the name suggests has autofocus abilities. 

The export software is browser based,  and can be used both wireless through wifi or offline through an ethernet cable. The Core goes for $3500 USD for the 40W, and $3750 USD for the 45W. And for the bundle, it is $6500 USD for the 40W, and $6750 USD for the 45W.

Universal Engraver: While mostly providing laser engravers, Universal has a 50W CO2 laser engraver and cutter for $8000 USD. It comes with Corel Draw– Corel’s vector editing software similar to Adobe Illustrator. It can be used offline, and does not give any details about air assist or autofocus capabilities. 

Orion Motor Tech: Orion is an oddity. Their actual website doesn’t link any of the laser cutters on their site,only showing their mechanic’s tools, but they are all available on Amazon.  They have 40W CO2 machines starting at $500 USD, to 100W machines for $3200 US. This is my first time hearing of them though, and have very little from their social media and Amazon Reviews. I would take care in looking into one of these machines, similar to the K40 machines.

In Short: All of these are large investments, and  can do a wide array of materials. Just make sure what peripherals you need to purchase and what comes with the machines when purchasing them. 

My Pick: The Laserbox or the Beamo Beambox seems like the best pick for my personal taste, with the Glowforge as a decent third. 

Industrial Cutters:

Photo By Gaëtan Bussy on Pixabay

These are the heavy duty CO2 or Helium-Neon cutters that you might see in some makerspaces or digital fabrication studios. Some few intrepid people may even invest in these machines for personal use. These all usually need an outside air compressor for air assist capabilities, and need a special air system connected to their machine for fume extraction– usually on top of a secondary fume extractor for use. These, unlike many of the desktop cutters, can be used offline via an ethernet connection (usually). 

I don’t expect anyone reading this to be looking into purchasing these, but it’s good to know what’s out there. 

Epilog: Epilog machines are the ones I know most about. These are the ones I started on in school, and we have an Epilog in the makerspace. They are CO2 lasers and make many models of varying size and power, starting with the 30W. They have autofocus capabilities, and need an air compressor for the air assist.

The most “affordable” options are the Epilog Zing, a 30W cutter, starting at  $8000 USD, the Legend Mini series at $18,000, and the Legend Helix Line at $21,000 USD. They also have a fiber optic line, but you can request a price– which usually means they are very pricy.

Universal Laser Systems: Not to be confused with Universal Engraving, this group provides industrial laser cutters as well. You need to contact them for a quote on their machines, but I’ll safely guess they are between $10,000-$20,000 USD.

Boss: Boss straddles the line between industrial and desktop by way of price, their entry level LS-1416 50W CO2 laser starts at $4000 USD, and can be upgraded to 70W. The most advanced of their hobby lasers is the LS-1630 65W CO2 (can be upgraded to 100W) at $7000 USD. 

Their LS-2436 is the lower end of their expert lasers. The 65W CO2 laser starts at $10,000, but has add ons and can be upgraded to 150W. They also have metal cutter and fiber optic cutters as well. 

 All models have air assist and autofocus capabilities, and come with its own software. Upgrades and addons can be additionally purchased. 

Full Spectrum Laser: We already covered the Muse desktop series, but Full Spectrum has their PS24 Pro Series. This 90W CO2 laser starts at $9000 USD. The PS36 Pro has a 90W and 120W version for $12,000 USD and $15,000 USD respectively. Their PS48 series comes in 90W, 120, and 150W at $13,000 USD, $16,000 USD, and $19,000 USD respectively.

All have autofocus capabilities and air assist via an external air compressor. They use their own proprietary software for export. Additional add ons can or will need to be purchased additionally. 

Rabbit: Rabbit has a wide variety of industrial grade laser cutters starting with a 40W cutter at $5700 USD to a large 4 foot by 6 foot laser 80W CNC for $14, 600 USD. Autofocus and air assist is available in the closed models, and export software can be purchased additionally. 

Grizzly: Grizzly has a whole suite of industrial tools from CNCs to Mills and Lathes and more. Their “Laser CNC” is a CO2 laser cutter and engraver like the rest. Their $3400 USD 60W benchtop machine is comparable to the likes of Glowforge, Beamo, and Lightbox. They also have a 150W for $7,500 USD, and a $150W 9875 USD industrial machine. 

The Benchtop model is manual focus only, the industrial ones have autofocus capabilities. All have external air assist, and come with RDWorks software.

In Short: These are for the experts, for those with heavy laser use under their belt. Not exactly something to invest in and jump in on right away. Look through Specification Manuals, ask for quotes, talk to the representatives and distributors before committing to any of these. These are hardy machines and if taken care right don’t really need as much maintenance, but parts and repairs will inevitably be just as much an investment as the machine. On the other hand, large wattage machines can cut a larger array of materials and thickness. (60W can only cut about .25 inches at best, a 100 W can do .5 inches to .75 to 1 inch entirely).

My Pick: Because of my familiarity with the machines leave me a bit biased, I will say Epilog. Full Spectrum is likely my second choice. Again, I can only dream of owning one of these machines on my own– but I can still  dream!

Further Research:

Photo By Gaëtan Bussy on Pixabay

As I’ve said a billion times, these machines are not cheap, and will be a commitment. Compare and contrast to your needs for the best one for you. Above is just the tip of the iceberg, but great ways to start on your laser cutter adventure. However be mindful of the following in your searching:

  • Price Point/Budget
  • Ready-to-Go or Kit
  • Wattage
  • Ventilation Type
  • External or Internal cooling
  • Auto or Manual Focusing
  • Air assist (and weather or not the air compressor is extra)
  • Material Guidelines
  • Active Bed Size
  • Ease of Maintenance
  • Level and Quality of support from the company
  • Can the app software import my file format? (AI, EPS, SVG)

And don’t forget to look into purchasing the following as well: 

  • Laser Safety Goggles/Glasses
  • Fume Extractor
  • Fire Extinguisher (preferably a gas-based one when working with CO2 lasers)

Below are more links for you to check out, as well as resources for those who think they want to commit to a K40 machine. 

Good Luck and happy hunting!

General Info:

K40 Research:

3D Printing & You!

Photo by ZMorph Multitool 3D Printer on Unsplash

This is an ongoing blog post series covering tools in the makerspace one can purchase for their at-home making needs.

Laser Cutters | Vinyl Cutters

This is an educational post and I have not been sponsored by any of these companies in any way.

So maybe you’re thinking about making at home. Or just curious about what else is out there. Either way, you’re valid. Unfortunately, I cannot say it is a cheap endeavor– however I will be sharing many different brands with varied price points to jumpstart your research.

Today’s post is focusing on 3D printers! There is going to be more of a focus on FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling) over SLA (Sterolithography) or DLP (Digital Light Processing) printers due to FDM printers being more readily available and affordable than SLA printers. Some of the companies listed make both!

In case you don’t know what each one does, here’s a simple breakdown:

  • FDM printers print by heating up a material filament (usually a kind of plastic) and is deposited into thin layers to build up the shape using a nozzle, almost like you would with frosting.
  • SLA printers use UV light and liquid (usually a resin) that is exposed, creating a chemical reaction that creates the shape– also layer by layer.
  • DLP is like SLA except the whole image is projected in light and formed and cured simultaneously. 

I will also add that this is by no means a comprehensive list! These are printers either a friend, colleague have used, or passed by me by way of internet research or other groups. Consider this just a stepping stone on your journey into looking into a 3D printer. There are also many other kinds of 3D printer as well, which are not covered here that you may come across in your your exploration. Be aware the prices I list are their starting price, meaning addons, peripherals, upgrades, and shipping  will add on the price.

Research is key! I can only share my own personal opinion and experience, but it’s always a good thing to check customer reviews and sites regarding your machine. I actually found the 3D printing community on Reddit to be a great resource for your research! I will have plenty of links at the bottom of your post to check out.

Without further ado, on to printers!

Expensive Tier:

Photo by NeONBRAND on Unsplash

Some of these printers were some of the first prosumer printers out for hobbyist and non-industrial use out there. Most makerspaces may have these machines for use as well (I know we do!)

You can buy older models at a lower cost, though for some that’s still pretty steep. You may not have the support, or may need to look tho third party shops for replacement parts. 

Ultimaker: The newest models, the S5 and S5 Pro go for $6000 and $9100 USD respectively. You can still purchase older models (Like our 2+/2- Extended) for about $2500 to $3000, but still pretty y i k e s.

For personal experience, price point aside, these are not fun printers to work with. They need constant manual bed recalibration and just are a pain to open up and repair. More power to those who use them, but I wouldn’t recommend these.

Formlabs: Special mention here because they are the most known  prosumer SLA printer company. Their recent model, the Form 3 starts at $3500 UD and their lard scale printer goes for a whopping $11000 USD! (That’s the most expensive non-industrial printer I know.) There’s also accessories for the SLA printing process such as washing and curing machines, etc. 

I’ve never done any SLA printing but I’ve had colleagues who used them and they seemed to be pleased with the print quality, but warned they are machines that need frequent care and maintenance. 

Makerbot: Like the Ulitmakers, Makerbot has been around since the hobbyist 3D printing movement started. Gotta respect that, but the Replicator + starts at $2000 USD and  their Replicator X18 starts at $5500 USD.

Many colleagues have voiced their dislike of the Makerbot machines, apparently having similar concerns as with the Ultimaker, they aren’t really great to work on and maintain, but other people seem to like them.

Mid Cost Tier:

Image by Peter Lutz on Pixabay

These are printers that are under $5000 for their higher end models. Only one I know has fast becoming fairly popular in the 3D printing industry, likely due to its balance of relative affordability and quality of prints.

Prusa: This is the company mentioned above, Prusa has been quickly becoming a staple in the 3D printing community. The Prusa i3 MK3S starts at $750 USD as a kit– meaning you’ll have to put it apart together. Never fear, for $1000 you can get a pre-built MK3S shipped to you ready to go. Prusa also has a miniature printer for $350 USD, and their SLA printer starts at $1400.

Prusas are usually my go-to when people ask me about printers. I have found their printing quality to be great, the magnetic PEI bed means no more spatula, the MK3 has an infrared sensor to help calibrate the bed with each print (and live Z-axis adjustment during printing), can support multicolor prints either through switching the filament manually or upgrading to the MMU2S upgrade. It is also open frame, so repairs and maintenance is way easier. Also, their customer support is fantastic, and they send you a bag of Haribos with every printer.

However, I don’t recommend the MMU2S upgrade. It is a very polarized item, some people love it or outright hate it, I am in the second camp. The 5 filament feeder is convenience at the cost of functionality. You need to maintain the machine more frequently with automatic filament feeder. There are some design flaws that lead to more print failures and cannot recommend. I do not know if the later models have addressed them, but purchase at your own risk. 

Dremel: Dremel Digilab is a series of digital fabrication tools, inculding desktop laser cutters as well as 3D printers. Their most basic model, the 3D20, starts at $680 USD and their most expensive is the 3D45 printer at $1900 USD.

Low Cost Tier:

Image by Peter Lutz on Pixabay

Cheap doesn’t mean it has to be bad! These are beginner printers that are under $1000 USD, and great for getting your toes wet in 3D printing. The cons are they may not have as large a print space as some of the others, but starting out, you might not need that.

These companies also have more higher end models more fitting for Mid Tier pricing, such as SLAs, but our focus is on the FDM printers.

XYZ Printing: While not the largest printers, they are affordable and many of my colleagues in costuming started off with these machines. From the tiny $170 USD Nano, to their Da Vinci Pro series starting at $400 USD. For $800, they have a 3-in-1 3D scanner, printer and laser engraver.

On the higher end, their Noble SLA printer starts at $700, and their Color model (an inkjet color FDM printer) goes for $2500. Which compared to the price of an Ultimaker that doesn’t print in full color…it’s not that bad. 

Flashforge:  Their Finder line, which looks like a small printer, starts at $250-300 USD, while their large scale Creator Series goes for $1200-3200 USD.

Though they also have an educational model with a built in camera for $1000, which is neat, and their DLP printer starts at $4000, which is par for the course for SLA/DLP.

I don’t know anyone who owns one, but research shows it has favorable reviews and claims to be easy to pick up as a beginner, but cannot speak on its maintenance. 

Crealty: The Ender 5 starts at $320 to their CR-10S Pro V2 at $630, they are a good starter printer and a good price point, with favorable reviews. It does need to be assembled, which many open frame printers tend to be. The onboarding and setup is fairly easy from the experience of some colleagues who just started out themselves with the Ender series. 

A neat thing to note, though sold out at the time of this writing, they have a 3-in-1 3D printer, mini CNC, and Laser Engraver.

Which Brings me to…

3-in-1 Tier:

Photo by ZMorph Multitool 3D Printer on Unsplash

3-in-1s are a good option for those with limited space, or trying to make the best with a limited budget. Usually it’s a combination FDM printer, miniature CNC, and Laser Etching/Cutter. While there are some limitations to these (particularly in the laser area) compared to some other devices, it is an option to look into! 

The down side is you are limited to thinner woods, fabric, leather, and the like with these machines for laser cutting etching, and none seem to say anything about acrylic, so 3-in-1s may not be ideal if you plan on working in acrylic. 

(Never fear, I will be writing up  a post on prosumer laser cutters soon! Please keep an eye out!)

Snapmaker: This was the first of the 3-in-1s I’ve heard of, I saw the kickstarter for the 1.0 back when they started out and recently just released their version 2.0. At $800 USD, the Snapmaker 1.0 is quite an affordable option for a 3-in-1 set. The lager and improved 2.0 is set to $1800 full price– which compared to a higher end single use printer is still a value. 

Snapmaker also has had some favorable reviews online, unfortunately I know no one personally who has one to see their view on it. 

Zmorph: I honestly came across these during my research and collecting links of the other printers I knew of. I’ve never heard of it before but really liked its look. It also has different kinds of extruders, a laser engraver, and miniature CNC mill module. While favorable in reviews as well, the cons to the machine is it’s $4400 USD price point and limited filament options. 

Further Research:

Image by nikitozawr on Pixabay

As you can see there’s different types of printers from tiny micro printers to massive industrial ones, to multitool. And this is not the comprehensive list of every model out there either!  As you go into further research, you should keep in mind what you’re looking for, such as:

  • Price Point/Budget
  • What type of filaments it can use (if you don’t plan to use PLA)
  • Maximum print dimensions
  • Ease of Maintenance
  • Level and Quality of support from the company

And to help with your research, below is a link of several sites dedicated to 3D printers who can help you compare and contrast and find the right printer for you!

And more!

With any luck, this will be the first step to your search for the perfect 3D printers. Best of luck and happy making!

Virtual Vacations

With the shelter in, many institutions have closed. But thankfully, living in the digital age has also allow many of them to provide virtual tours of their spaces. I have compiled a list of some virtual tours, many are museums, but there are also monuments, and live cams of national parks, aquariums, and zoos!

MUSEUMS

Virtual Museum Tours

These are museums that let you virtually wall their halls! For online collections only, see the category below.

Continue reading “Virtual Vacations”