1.Describe the primary differences in the role of citizens in government, among the federal, confederation, and unitary systems.
On the one hand, a federal governmental system characterizes itself for having two relatively autonomous levels of government. Under this system both levels are elected by the people and each level has different functions assigned. In the U.S federal system, the federal government is led by the president and the congress. In fact, all of these representatives are elected by voters across the country. Conversely, the subnational part of the government falls under the discretion of all fifty states, which are led by a governor and the state legislature. Similarly, in a confederation the authority is decentralized and the authority is concentrated in states. However, in a unitary system subnational governments dependent on the national government, where the authority is concentrated in a central government.
2.Briefly explain how you understand the system of division of power.
In a governmental system with divisions of power the authority of the government is equally allocated in different institutions. For example, in a Federation like the United States the power or authority is equally distributed between the legislative, judicial and executive institutions. In addition, in a system with a division of power each level of government is somewhat independent from the others. Still, they are constantly interacting with each other. They rely on each other to succeed. In conclusion, the system with a division of power does not mean that it’s a broken or divided government. On the contrary, it’s breaking down in parts the same authority to strengthen each other and work together as a whole powerful system.
How does the federal government shape the actions of state and local governments?
According to Price and Myers, “Many local governments have created more specific guidance on COVID-19 responses and implemented restrictions when the state and federal governments have remained silent, or have explicitly left certain decisions up to local governments.” In other words, municipalities created their own specific guidelines when the federal and state governments did not create legislations to regulate the crisis that the Covid-19 pandemic caused. However, federal funding is essential for the States. Especially in a state like New York where the reduction of consumer spending caused an estimated loss of 22% of sales tax collections over the course of the year  (Price and Myers, 3). Then a way in which the federal government has shaped the actions of NY state has been by the approval of “The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act ” which allocated $150 billion in funding for state governments, and was then apportioned to municipalities. This funding allowed the State of New York to cover necessary expenses caused by the COVID-19 public health emergency as well as funding for Municipal Liquidity (Price and Myers, 4) This is an example of how the decisions of the federal government can strongly affect the action that a State takes towards the well-being of its citizens. Without the federal funding New York could have had a longer and more challenging recovery from the financial hardships that this pandemic has caused.