1. The primary differences in the roles of citizens in government and among the three different systems of government is that there is a popular sovereignty. The principle of this means that the government power lies within the people. The theory of this comes from the concept of social contract and that the government should be for the benefit of all citizens. If the government is not doing all it can to protect its citizens then it should be dissolved. The term social contract means that the state exists only to serve the people who are the source of all political power. This idea is one of the foundations of the American political system today. 

2.The division of power is what modern democracies use to divide their governmental power into two general categories. The first is something that is like the way the US is run by using a combination of two structures. The first and most common one is by sharing the power among the three branches of government- the legislative, the executive and the judiciary branches. The second part is known as Federalism. With Federalism they believe to split the right amount of power between the two levels of government on a national and state level. Within the United States the term federal government is referring to the government on a national level. While with the term states means government at the subnational level.

3.The federal government has shaped the actions of state and local governments in many different ways. Some of the ways that they do this is by giving out grants. The national government’s ability to give out grants is normally considered to be a “carrot” to the extent of its design in which the main goal is to have the recipient do something. But with unfunded mandates that can be imposed by the federal government they come with federal requirements that must be met by both state and local authorities. With Mandates they are usually backed up with the threat of penalties for non-compliance and provide little to no compensation at all. These types of deals are often referred to as a “stick.”

In regards to the response of how the Federal government has influenced the action of state and local governments it played a big role in many of the steps being taken. NYC at the height of Covid 19 was considered to be a epicenter and a huge spreader for Covid 19. While former Governor Andrew Comuo did his best to keep things under control for both at a state and local level it was impossible. People were losing their jobs, there became a shortage of ventailers and a city found itself with stock piles of people dying left and right. During this time under the Defense Production Act (DPA) the federal government can direct production by private industry to increase the supply of needed goods. Which would help increase economic productivity and increase the supply of needed goods. President Trump didn’t not act on this right away which caused millions of families to lose their loved ones.  President Trump instead failed to order an increase in needed supplies until April 16 well almost two months into a lock down. Thus the federal government forced the local level’s hand and Mayor Bill De Blaso would seek help from a private company to produce well needed ventilators.

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