Gladys Tavera- DB 5.1

  1. In a manufacturing process, production refers to the process of converting raw materials or inputs into finished goods or products. To put it another way, it’s the process of making something out of nothing. A production run, for example, is a term used by some companies to describe a group of products produced at the same time. These terms can be used interchangeably. Essentially, it refers to the manufacturing process itself or the end product of a manufacturing process. Labor is the amount of physical, mental, and social effort used to produce goods and services in an economy. It supplies the expertise, manpower, and service needed to turn raw materials into finished products and services. For example the services performed by workers for wages as distinguished from those rendered by entrepreneurs for profits.

2. Based on the ideas that presented in the video value can be A thing or matter is valuable when it is able to facilitate someone. A law is valuable when it is able to establish justice. Similarly, a suggestion or advice is valuable when it helps to overcome a crisis. It is subjective as well as objective. It may have personal importance as well as universality and can be applicable to others.

3. Relative pricing between goods is explained by and predicted to tend toward a “natural price,” which reflects the relative amount of labor that goes into producing them, according to the labor theory of value.

4. Labor has always been a part of human life in order to generate the things and services that keep us alive. Labor power is a historically unique concept that has been absent for lengthy periods of human history before resurfacing in capitalism. A worker’s labor power is what he or she sells to a company.

5. Labour power is the capacity of “labour”. In Marx’s terms, labour was the physical form of activity or work while, labour power is the ability or capacity to do the work. Marx puts labour and labour power as two things. He explains that labour is not nothing but just an activity labouring activity and it has no value attached to it. It is the labour power that has a value. And, labour power is something that is exercised through labouring. In other words, Marx claimed that people do not exchange activity for wages, they rather exchange power or their ability to perform such activities labour power for exchange. Thus, Labour are the sellers of their labour power.

6. The surplus value is the difference between the exchange value of a commodity and the wage paid to the workers. Marx propounded the theory of surplus value on the basis of his theory of value. In capitalism the workers are not given a wage equal to the value they produce. They are given a wage which is far less than the value created by them. For example if the production of a commodity requires 10 hours labour power. In the process of production workers are not paid a wage equal to 10 hours but will be paid a wage equal to the 2 hours which is equal to the bare subsistence of the labour. The surplus of production over the cost is appropriated by the capitalist.  It is important that researchers determine people’s social class to generate knowledge about how one’s class positioning affects such things as quality of life (among other important outcomes). Social class is an important factor in sociology. Because it can be related to many other aspects and quality of life of the people. Social class can be used as a variable in different researches.

WEALTH INEQUALITY- Gladys Tavera DB. 5.3

  1. Which statistic on wealth inequality in the US (discussed on p. 29) made the biggest impression on you? Explain why?

About 90 percent of American families have little to no net assets. The United States has more inequality and wealth disparity than almost any other developed country, and it is growing. Many scholars ascribe substantial wealth and inequality disparities across racial groups to the country’s past of slavery and discriminatory economic policies. It is interesting to know that to be rich you have to have a rich parent. According to this quote, “If you aren’t rich, it is because you lacked the foresight to pick the right parents at birth”. Nowadays it is very difficult to get up to a high class because there are many people who work hard but it is not enough to stay in a high class. 

2. What could be some of the implications of living in a society that has such huge wealth inequalities? Do you see this dynamic getting played out in everyday life in our society? How so? Example?

We see the implication of wealth inequality daily. Income refers to the money received in terms of wages, salaries, to a person from any work or job during a particular period of time.It includes monetary assistance from the government to the people in need on a monthly or yearly basis. Wealth is the total savings of the household at a particular period of time. Wealth is the total assets owned by a person in a particular period of time. Wealth inequality refers to the inequality of unequal distribution of wealth in the household of a country or within a geographical area, whereas income inequality is the unequal distribution of income over the household of a country. For example, The inequality of wealth is one of the worst economic inequalities of a country than that of the income inequality. Wealth of a household is the best source of income. More the wealth the household holds, the more income they get. The households with more wealth gains 200 times more income than that of the household who doesn’t hold any wealth.Wealth is an aspect of strong income flow. Wealth inequality is the worst situation in economics than income inequality. Wealth inequality impacts more severely on economic growth than that of income inequality. Wealth inequality results in a drastic decrease in the GDP and economic growth of a country.

Gladys Tavera- DB 6.2

  1. The faction reminded me it was the social class. 
  2. The difference between individuals who accumulate riches and those who do not is, according to James Madison, in their mental ability and wealth worthiness. The source of wealth is superior intelligence caused by the fact that a person is a member of the superior race. The difference between property and wealth is the diferente between intelligence people and dumb people. According to Mandison, there is a diversity. There is a fundamental difference in the intellectual ability between different American types of people based on economic condition and ethnicity. There are many interest groups and they try to manipulate in different ways. People should be under some limitation. On the other hand, all should be ensured liberty and freedom of activities. Then he says that in representative republicanism there should be representatives of minorities.
  3. I agree because for some people it is true that they are responsible for their own fate and they do not have proper wisdom and effort to develop their economic condition. On the other hand, the system also forces one to remain poor. They also think that there is not an equal distribution of the natural resources. If the natural resources are equally distributed and if capitalism is eliminated then there would not be any poverty and all the people would be ensured food and shelter. All the people would get equal advantage to prosper in their life.
  4. The mission of the US Government Accountability Office is to protect these faculties from becoming wealthy, as they create unequal groups of citizens in meeting its constitutional responsibilities and to help improve the performance and ensure the accountability of the federal government for the benefit of the American people.
  5. The protection of these faculties is the first objective of the government to protect the wealth of the wealthy or to enforce the supposed division between the more intelligent and the less intelligent. To enforce the division between the social classes those are divisions between human capabilities. I’m not surprised that Federalist #10 opposes democracy and instead advocates for a Republican (representative) government. Because he believes the republic is capable of safeguarding the interests of the wealthy.

Gladys Tavera- D.B 3.2

  1. Ideology, according to Althusser, is an individual’s formation of views that serve the owning class. Ideology is formed via socialization, which determines who a person is based on their participation in society. Conservative politics, for example, is an ideology based on the belief that people can be distinguished by their abilities, talents, or possessions. Being “self-sufficient” or having a large sum of money is considered successful. The working class was regarded as sluggish and underachieving. Conservatives are reactive because they oppose any changes that might reduce inequality and encourage reform. 

2. According to Althusser, the state develops its own apparatus where it can make citizens subject to those apparatus willingly. The kinds of ISA then include education, media, religious institutions, family, law. They function differently in terms of the conformity they demand from the citizens to continue the division or creation of the ownership of capital and making people who will submit to the ideas of a particular production system. For, Althusser education is the most important ideological apparatus. It is because first it substitutes the role of the church and second it is through education where a class structure is built based on the idea of meritocracy and achievement while making conforming individuals.

3. According to Althusser, ideology is the creation of beliefs that benefit the owning class. Ideology is established through socialization, which shapes a person’s identity based on their social engagement. For example, conservative politics is built on the concept that people can be distinguished based on their abilities, talents, or possessions. It is regarded as successful to be “self-sufficient” or to have a substantial sum of money. Working-class people were thought to be lazy and underachieving. Conservatives are reacting as a result of their opposition to any changes that might reduce inequality and promote reform.

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Gladys Tavera- DB. 2.2


The reazon Southern racist politicians chose to frame their defense of racial segregation through the language of “law and order” I’ts because during 1950s and 60s American experienced the widespread freedom movement also known as the civil rights movement against racial sedregation in American where black activists and white activists. They basically said we want to end racial segregation by law in American. Back in the day, Black and white was separated through diferente facilities. According to the article to Alexander, this phrase caused a disturbance in the Democratic Party’s dominance of American politics, allowing the Republican Party to gain a new majority of discrimination in the country. 

Yes, the southern strategy is still influencing american politics at this moment in time. One example of this was president Trump who said “This is a battle to save the Heritage, History, and Greatness of our Country!” But making sure that the Confederacy continues to be honored is a cause even Republicans are less and less willing to join. More politicians are making racist statements to people of color, particularly Black people, based on this quote.

Gladys Tavera- Discussion B. 2.1

  1. Crack cocaine began in the early 1980s. People go to jail because of the possession of drugs. According to the article, crack cocaine started to spread rapidly in poor black neighborhoods in the United States. Michelle Alexander’s shows that mainstream American has so many people in prison also known as mass incarceration is the fact that there’s a lot being committed.  “Alexander also contrasts the hugely different outcome of convictions and sentences between whites and people of color, even though all colors use and sell illegal drugs at a similar rate” This basically means that most people who use drugs are more likely to be involved in drug-related crimes than are young white Americans.

2. Racial disparities in the rates of incarceration cannot be explained by the rates of drug crimes because all ethnicities in America or in races hate to use the word racist because there are no races among humans. Drug use is widespread. Any American from any social stratification or groups can be potentially a drug user or drug addict. In fact that minorities people of color are over represented in the criminal justice system in the prisons it’s not because people of color use drugs that’s not real. 

3. In my point of view “the American penal system has emerged as a system of social control unparalleled in world history” means that the American criminal system is profoundly corrupt and is being used to control specific groups within the country. Also given the high prevalence of racial minorities in jails and prisons, one could argue that the establishment of such a criminal justice system is unprecedented.

Gladys Tavera- D.B 3.1

1. Keeping in mind the material covered in this lesson, describe how you understand ideology in YOUR OWN WORDS. 

Hint: One way to approach this is as follows

a) Describe what ideology is in a brief paragraph (in your own words). 

b) Give an example illustrating what you wrote in (a).

c) Write another paragraph (or two), explaining to your reader with additional details, how you understand ideology.

I think that ideology can be defined as a set of certain beliefs, values of a social or political group. It exists in both theoretical and practical form. It is a system of ideas on which the society or a government works. Example of it can be Capitalism which is an economic system that operates on the principle that the marketplace of ideas be accessible to everyone equally. It is the most relevant form of ideology currently in action. In almost all of the countries capitalism is into a role today.

2. How do you understand the difference between conservative and liberal ideology in US politics? What seem to be the big differences, the dividing line? Given an example to backup your arguments.

Hint: try to identify key words (concepts) that play a big role in making someone consider themselves to be liberal or conservative. Then, explain in your own words what those keywords (concepts) mean.

The differences between conservative and liberal ideology is that Liberal ideology is where people tend to change according to the society. They believe that laws must be amended according to the changes and veryone must be ready to accept change like same sex marriage, single parenting. Consrvativ ideology is the exact opposite of libelarism where people will not be ready to accept change and support same old laws like opposing same sex marriages, abortions. Conservative ideologies generally support racism also. Now a days most of the population are favouring libelarism where every race,religion and sex is treated equally and respected.It is really a good move for the dvelopment of the country.

3. How do you understand Althusser’s definition of ideology? Paraphrase it in your own words. Given an example. Hint: you may have to watch the second video again, and find the few places where Althusser’s position is presented.

Althusser denoted ideology as an individual’s establishment of beliefs; that benefit the owning

class. Socialization creates ideology, determining who a person is on their involvement in Society. Being “self-reliant” or having a vast sum of money is viewed as being successful. The working class was considered lazy with low achievements. Conservatives are reactionary because they wanted to stop modification that would control inequality and promote reform.

Gladys Tavera- Discussion B.

Hello everyone, my name is Gladys. My major at BMCC is criminal justice, and I’m in my second year. One of the things I enjoy about being a criminal justice student is the opportunity to learn about various laws in the United States. In the spring of 2022, I plan to complete my associate’s degree and then transfer to John Jay to complete my bachelor’s degree. Gym and listening to music are two of my favorite things to do.