1. The means of production refer to the resources and tools that workers need to use for production. Generally, they can include land, factory buildings, machinery and equipment, tools, raw materials, and so on. The means of production is the sum of the means of labor and the objects of labor in the production process. It is a necessary material condition for any society to carry out material production. Mean of labor is the sum of all material data used by humans to influence and change the objects of labor. Production tools are the most important part of the means of labor. What needs to be emphasized is that the means of production include production tools, but the tools of production are not necessarily the means of production. Only when the means of production exist in the system of the means of production and contribute to the value generated by the means of production, it has the nature of the means of production. For example, the same hammer, in a factory, is part of the means of production and is an exploitative tool. At home, it is not a means of production, but a means of living.2
  2. and 3″ The value of commodities is the homogeneous human labor congealed in them”-《Das Kapital》If this sentence is hard to understand, no problem. The specific labor forms value in use.Abstract labor forms value in the entity. The homogeneous human labor (Abstract labor) refers to the process by which humans consume labor, physical and mental power, and generate common values ​​in the production process. Simply put, the value of the commodity is the homogeneous human labor. 4 . Labor force refers to a person’s ability to work, which is the sum of a person’s physical strength and mental strength, that is, the ability of a person to use his brain and physical strength to do a certain kind of work. Labor is the expenditure and consumption of this labor capacity, that is, the use of labor in the process of value creation. Simply put, the difference between the two is that one is the ability, and the other is to use this ability. What is the point of distinguishing them? In a capitalist society, it is labor forece rather than labor that workers sell to capitalists in the labor market (various forms of recruitment). 5. Surplus value is the value-form of the surplus labor that the employed laborer continues after completing the necessary labor. In layman’s terms, a hired worker creates an average of 300 U.S. dollars a day, and his salary is one hundred U.S. dollars. This 100 U.S. dollar salary is the value of the labor commodity, that is, the necessary labor value and the remaining 200 U.S. dollars is the surplus value.

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