1. The biggest difference between an owner and an employee is that the owner independently owns the means of production, while the employee does not independently own the means of production, and must rely on selling his own labor to work for others to earn income. The owner of a small shop, even if he is not directly involved in exploitation, as long as he independently owns the means of production, he can be called the owner or petite bourgeoisie. A manager with an annual salary of one million, as long as he must sell his labor to earn income, he is still an employee.
  2. Regarding that sentence, my understanding is that the value of labor is relatively constant, while the exchange value of commodities is indeed variable. A glass of water in the desert is cheaper than diamonds, because it takes more labor to obtain it, which is why labor is the real value.
  3. To talk about this issue, we must first understand the definition of the two words class and identity. The first thing to emphasize is that class and stratum are not the same. For the definition of class, I quoted Lenin’s original words “large groups of people differing from each other by the place they occupy in a historically determined system of social production, by their relation (in most cases fixed and formulated in law) to the means of production, by their role in the social organization of labor, and, consequently, by the dimensions of the share of social wealth of which they dispose and the mode of acquiring it.” The division of classes is determined by the different positions and relationships that people have in a specific social and economic structure. Examples of one class versus another are slave owners and slaves, landlords and serfs, capitalists and employees. Next is the definition of identity I found-Identity is the qualities, beliefs, personality, looks, and/or expressions that make a person (self-identity as emphasized in psychology[1]) or group ([[collective identity ] no] as pre-eminent in sociology). If identity is how a person or a group perceives oneself, then there is no doubt that class is an identity
  4. People of the same class have the same things in common and the same claims of interest. This is what the author said “class structures are built around a close form of dependency”. An example is what the author said “This interdependence means that to be a worker is to always and everywhere be in a position of having your interests at least threatened by the capitalist that employs you. But it also means that workers everywhere have the potential power to force their employers to the table by threatening their ability to remain capitalists”。

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