1. The primary difference between federal, unitary and confederation systems is that a federal system presupposes two layers of government (state and federal) with different functions. Both governments are elected by the people and derive their authority from the public, therefore, making citizens directly involved in politics and socio-economic issues. Whereas a unitary system relies on a strong national government and a confederate system provides for concentration of power in the states, a federation rests on the division of power between the states and the federal government, both elected by the people.
  2. The system of division of power is designed to check and balance three branches of the government: the legislative (the Congress, comprised of the Senate and the House), the executive (the President), and judicial (the courts). The three branches are interdependent and work in unison to provide for a smooth operation and to ensure that none of the branches get too powerful: the president could veto Congress’ decision, the Congress approves the Supreme Court judges, who, in turn, check the power of Congress to enact laws or balances the executive power. 
  3. Being a transport and cultural hub, New York City was one of the first cities in the U.S. to experience the disastrous effects of the Covid-19 pandemic. While federal government was minimizing the threat of the disease, provided no testing equipment and advised no enforcement of social distancing rules, people in New York City were getting sick and dying from the virus. The delayed response in containing and/or isolating the sick was largely due to CDC’s lack of interest in investigating the matter. The federal government did not see the threat but preferred to view it as a waste of resources – later, when it was obvious that the Covid-19 pandemic has a grip on New York City, the CDC was issuing memos that did nothing but confuse the people who believed that the virus could be spreading through surfaces. The state authorities, lacking proper resources and power, spend numerous days infighting or arguing with the federal government over the severity of the situation, delaying the response further and showing us how the actions of the federal authorities have a direct effect on the state.

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